Santa Teresa di Gallura, Sardinia
The town runs along a promontory that looks north to the southern coast of Corsica from which it is separated from the Bocche di Bonifacio, just 11 miles from Capo Pertusato, to the north-east the archipelago of La Maddalena, and to the west it overlooks the sea. of Sardinia.
The rocks of Monte Russu, Colombaia and Munichedda belong to the territory of Santa Teresa.
Formerly known as Longosardo (or Longo Sardo or Longone), it was already in the Roman period a port of considerable importance. This notoriety was due to the granite extracted in the surroundings that was transported to Rome. These premises make it plausible the hypothesis that in the area was located the ancient city of Tibula. The Capo Testa quarries provided granite for the cathedral and the baptistery of Pisa and, it is said, also for the Pantheon of Rome.
In the Middle Ages the locality, inserted in the curatoria of Taras or Montanea, passed under the judges of Gallura; the village of Longosardo was probably founded by Pisan merchants in the twelfth century to encourage local trade.
In the fourteenth century the Aragonese, shortly after the conquest of the island, built a castle from scratch, then long disputed during the Sardinian-Catalan war. After the end of the hostilities, the village and the castle of Longosardo were donated as fiefdom to Ferrando de Castrillo. The situation lasted until 1442 when Longosardo was assaulted by the Genoese led by Francesco Spinola who plundered both the castle and the village. So the following year Alfonso V of Aragon ordered their final demolition. The territory of Longone was then assigned as a fief, along with its port, to Pietro Maça Carroz d’Arborea.
A historical site of particular interest is the tower of Longosardo (built around the 16th century by order of the king of Spain, Philip II) located on the most extreme strip of rock in the country.
When in 1720 the island passed to the Savoy, Francesco Maria Magnon was sent as tower commander, who understood the need to create a town near the fortress. On 12 August 1808 a decree of Vittorio Emanuele I began the foundation of Santa Teresa, was the same king who designed the plan of the village and decided the name in honor of his wife: Queen Maria Teresa of Habsburg-Este.
At 3 km from the center, the Buoncammino church, built in the seventeenth century, is born under an ancient pine forest.
The inhabited center, characterized by low buildings, develops around two inlets: that of Porto Longone, a deep natural fjord at the bottom of which there is the port, and that of Rena Bianca, which contains the famous beach of fine sand and white.
One of the peculiar characteristics of the conformation of the town is the Roman plant, that is an urban structure made of a network of streets that intersect perpendicularly. The shape is typical of the Piedmontese settlements of military origin (for example, as Carloforte and Calasetta built for the Tabar- dini coming from Tunisia) and this demonstrates the incidence that the Piedmontese contingent has had in these places.
A very popular tourist destination, the economy of the village is based on a strong tourist presence, both Italian and foreign. The port, which has gained a considerable importance of importance, with the European free trade treaties, has long lost what for decades has been the old frontier connotation. Currently, by means of multi-day ferries, it ensures continuous connections for tourists and goods with Bonifacio, a common crossroads in Corsica.